While directing The Outlaw , Hughes became fixated on a small flaw in one of Jane Russell 's blouses, claiming that the fabric bunched up along a seam and gave the appearance of two nipples on each breast. This is speculative. According to Noah Dietrich, "Land became a principal asset for the Hughes empire. Reads Ltd. Ken Levine on the making of Bioshock".
Hughes, now the proud possessor of a specially modified Boeing PB, finds the love of speed in the air and sets a straightaway record of miles per hour in at Los Angeles Municipal Airport. Two years later, in Miami, Florida, he enters the Al-American Air meet and though this is his first and only competitive air race, he winds the Sportsman Pilot racing event and the President Trujillo Cup of the Dominican Republic.
This corporation gave informal birth to the corporation that will become a half-billion dollar enterprise. The H-1 is the most useful aircraft built, and the first to use butt-jointed metal skin and flush rivets. The H-1 is ready for its maiden flight in September In Streaking the H-1 over the 3 kilometer course at miles per hour, Howard Hughes ha snow flown faster than any man and he is fully accepted by the aviation community as a respected colleague.
Hughes is out to set another record in January This time he is flying his Northrop Gamma, previously owned by aviatrix Jackie Cochran. After setting this new transcontinental speed record, Hughes tells unbelieving reporters that airliners will soon make the same flight in even less time.
Later, he receives the personal congratulations from President Roosevelt. Although he also receives the coveted Harmon Trophy from the President, still only a few pilots realize that Howard Hugh intends to devote much of his life and fortune to aviation. In the summer of Hughes turns in another sterling performance in his Northrop Gamma.
In his return flight to California Hughes sets another record when he lands his Northrop at Glendale, after an 8 hour 20 minute flight from. Hughes readies his H-1 racer in January at Burbank, now equipped with a more powerful engine and a high-speed wing.
This time he intends to show what it can really do. To help promote it he plans a dramatic flight around the world. At Floyd Bennett Field, New York on July 10, , Hughes and his crew are ready to take off for their attempt to circle the world, a flight to demonstrate the true potential of a commercial airliner. For Hughes has now acquired controlling interest in Transcontinental and Western Airlines.
That later became famous as TWA. Suddenly they are airborne and streaking away from New York and toward Paris. They made it to Le Bourget Field, Paris. Hughes sets the Lockheed down to the cheers of thousands and the greetings of many dignitaries. Soon, these sexually suggestive dances became the focus of the performances, and the word burlesque became a synonym for striptease.
Of special note are Betty Rowland dancing in panel 12, and being escorted into court to face obscenity charges in panel 13, Bettie Page from one of her nude shorts in panel 20, Lilly Christine in panel 21, Lili St. We hope these images take the edge off those Monday blahs.
Since we brought up a buxom burlesque dancer yesterday, we thought a return to the subject was appropriate. And by everything she meant boobs—forty inches worth. Howard was a star by the late s, and hit her stride during the s, dancing all over the U. You may remember Howard led off our collection of vintage burlesque dancers back in If you haven't seen it, or are perhaps up for a revisit, check it here.
Hughes formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in , hiring numerous engineers and designers. He spent the rest of the s and much of the s setting multiple world air speed records and building the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 Hercules the Spruce Goose. The date remains uncertain due to conflicting dates from various sources. He repeatedly claimed Christmas Eve as his birthday.
John's Episcopal Church in Keokuk, Iowa , listed his date of birth as September 24, , without any reference to the place of birth. Hughes Sr. He had English , Welsh and some French Huguenot ancestry,  and was a descendant of John Gano , the minister who allegedly baptized George Washington.
The senior Hughes made the shrewd and lucrative decision to commercialize the invention by leasing the bits instead of selling them, obtained several early patents, and founded the Hughes Tool Company in Hughes' uncle was the famed novelist, screenwriter, and film-director Rupert Hughes. At a young age, Hughes showed interest in science and technology.
In particular, he had great engineering aptitude and built Houston's first "wireless" radio transmitter at age He took his first flying lesson at 14, and attended Fessenden School in Massachusetts in He later attended math and aeronautical engineering courses at Caltech. His mother Allene died in March from complications of an ectopic pregnancy.
Howard Hughes Sr. Their deaths apparently inspired Hughes to include the establishment of a medical research laboratory in the will that he signed in at age Howard Sr. From a young age Hughes became a proficient and enthusiastic golfer. He often scored near-par figures, played the game to a two-three handicap during his 20s, and for a time aimed for a professional golf career.
He golfed frequently with top players, including Gene Sarazen. Hughes rarely played competitively and gradually gave up his passion for the sport to pursue other interests. After Hughes hurt himself in the late s, his golfing tapered off, and after his F crash, Hughes was unable to play at all. Hughes withdrew from Rice University shortly after his father's death.
They moved to Los Angeles, where he hoped to make a name for himself as a filmmaker. They moved into the Ambassador Hotel , and Hughes proceeded to learn to fly a Waco , while simultaneously producing his first motion picture, Swell Hogan. Hughes enjoyed a highly successful business career beyond engineering, aviation, and filmmaking, though many of his career endeavors involved varying entrepreneurial roles.
The Summa Corporation was the name adopted for the business interests of Howard Hughes after he sold the tool division of Hughes Tool Company in The company serves as the principal holding company for Hughes' business ventures and investments. It is primarily involved in aerospace and defense, electronics, mass media, manufacturing, and hospitality industries, but has maintained a strong presence in a wide variety of industries including real estate, petroleum drilling and oilfield services, consulting, entertainment, and engineering.
Much of his fortune was later used for philanthropic causes, notably towards health care and medical research. His first film, Swell Hogan, directed by Ralph Graves , was a disaster. His next two films, Everybody's Acting and Two Arabian Knights , were financial successes, the latter winning the first Academy Award for Best Director of a comedy picture.
He produced another hit, Scarface , a production delayed by censors' concern over its violence. The Outlaw premiered in , but was not released nationally until The film featured Jane Russell , who received considerable attention from industry censors, this time owing to Russell's revealing costumes. Within weeks of acquiring the studio, Hughes dismissed employees.
Production dwindled to 9 pictures that first year Hughes was in control, while before, RKO averaged 30 per year. Production was shut down for six months during which time investigations were conducted of each employee who remained with RKO as far as their political leanings were concerned.
Only after ensuring that the stars under contract to RKO had no suspect affiliations would Hughes approve completed pictures to be sent back for re-shooting. This was especially true of the women who were under contract to RKO at that time. If Hughes felt that his stars did not properly represent the political views of his liking or if a film's anti-communist politics were not sufficiently clear, he pulled the plug.
In , an abortive sale to a Chicago-based group connected to the mafia with no experience in the industry also disrupted studio operations at RKO even further. In , Hughes was involved with a high profile lawsuit as part of the settlement of the United States v.
Paramount Pictures, Inc. Antitrust Case. As a result of the hearings, the shaky status of RKO became increasingly apparent. A steady stream of lawsuits from RKO's minority shareholders had grown to be extremely annoying to Hughes. They had accused him of financial misconduct and corporate mismanagement. Since Hughes wanted to focus primarily on his aircraft manufacturing and TWA holdings during the Korean War years, Hughes offered to buy out all other stockholders in order to dispense with their distractions.
Hughes retained the rights to pictures that he had personally produced, including those made at RKO. He also retained Jane Russell's contract. For Howard Hughes, this was the virtual end of his year involvement in the motion picture industry. However, his reputation as a financial wizard emerged unscathed. During that time period, RKO became known as the home of film noir classic productions thanks in part to the limited budgets required to make such films during Hughes' tenure.
General Tire was interested mainly in exploiting the value of the RKO library for television programming even though it made some attempts to continue producing films. After a year and a half of mixed success, General Tire shut down film production entirely at RKO at the end of January According to Noah Dietrich, "Land became a principal asset for the Hughes empire. Hughes acquired acres in Culver City for Hughes Aircraft, bought 7 sections [4, acres] in Tucson for his Falcon missile plant, and purchased 25, acres near Las Vegas.
Beyond extending his business prowess in the manufacturing, aviation, entertainment, and hospitality industries, Hughes was a successful real estate investor. Hughes was deeply involved in the American real estate industry where he amassed vast holdings of undeveloped land both in Las Vegas and in the desert surrounding the city that had gone unused during his lifetime.
This forced the remaining businesses of the "original" Hughes Tool to adopt a new corporate name Summa. The name "Summa"—Latin for "highest"—was adopted without the approval of Hughes himself, who preferred to keep his own name on the business, and suggested HRH Properties for Hughes Resorts and Hotels, and also his own initials.
In , Summa announced plans for Summerlin , a master-planned community named for the paternal grandmother of Howard Hughes, Jean Amelia Summerlin. Initially staying in the Desert Inn , Hughes refused to vacate his room, and instead decided to purchase the entire hotel. He quickly became one of the most powerful men in Las Vegas.
He was instrumental in changing the image of Las Vegas from its Wild West roots into a more refined cosmopolitan city. Another portion of Hughes' business interests lay in aviation, airlines, and the aerospace and defense industries. Hughes was a lifelong aircraft enthusiast and pilot. He survived four airplane accidents: He set many world records and commissioned the construction of custom aircraft for himself while heading Hughes Aircraft at the airport in Glendale , CA.
Operating from there, the most technologically important aircraft he commissioned was the Hughes H-1 Racer. This was the last time in history that the world airspeed record was set in an aircraft built by a private individual. A year and a half later, on January 19, , flying the same H-1 Racer fitted with longer wings, Hughes set a new transcontinental airspeed record by flying non-stop from Los Angeles to Newark in seven hours, 28 minutes, and 25 seconds beating his own previous record of nine hours, 27 minutes.
The H-1 Racer featured a number of design innovations: The H-1 Racer was donated to the Smithsonian. On July 14, , Hughes set another record by completing a flight around the world in just 91 hours three days, 19 hours, 17 minutes , beating the previous record set in by Wiley Post in a single engine Lockheed Vega by almost four days.
Hughes returned home ahead of photographs of his flight. For this flight he flew a Lockheed 14 Super Electra NX, a twin-engine transport with a four-man crew fitted with the latest radio and navigational equipment. Hughes wanted the flight to be a triumph of American aviation technology, illustrating that safe, long-distance air travel was possible.
Albert Lodwick of Mystic, Iowa provided organizational skills as the flight operations manager. Hobby Airport in Houston, Texas —known at the time as Houston Municipal Airport—was renamed after Hughes, but the name was changed back after people objected to naming the airport after a living person. Hughes also had a role in the design and financing of both the Boeing Stratoliner and Lockheed L Constellation.
President Harry S. Truman sent the Congressional medal to Hughes after the F crash. After his around-the-world flight, Hughes had declined to go to the White House to collect it. The Hughes D-2 was conceived in as a bomber with five crew members, powered by cylinder Wright R Tornado engines. The aircraft was constructed using the Duramold process. The prototype was brought to Harper's Dry Lake California in great secrecy in and first flew on June 20 of that year.
Hughes then attempted to get the military to pay for the development of the D In November , the hangar containing the D-2A was reportedly hit by lightning and the aircraft was destroyed. The D-2 design was abandoned, but led to the extremely controversial Hughes XF Only the two prototypes were completed; the second one with a single propeller per side.
In the spring of , Hughes spent nearly a month in Las Vegas , test flying his Sikorsky S amphibian aircraft, practicing touch-and-go landings on Lake Mead in preparation for flying the H-4 Hercules. The weather conditions at the lake during the day were ideal and he enjoyed Las Vegas at night. The test flight did not go well. Hughes suffered a severe gash on the top of his head when he hit the upper control panel and had to be rescued by one of the others on board.
Hughes was involved in another near-fatal aircraft accident on July 7, , while performing the first flight of the prototype U. An oil leak caused one of the contra-rotating propellers to reverse pitch, causing the aircraft to yaw sharply and lose altitude rapidly. Hughes attempted to save the aircraft by landing it at the Los Angeles Country Club golf course, but just seconds before reaching the course, the XF started to drop dramatically and crashed in the Beverly Hills neighborhood surrounding the country club.
When the XF finally came to a halt after destroying three houses, the fuel tanks exploded, setting fire to the aircraft and a nearby home at North Whittier Drive, owned by Lt Col. Charles E. William L. Durkin, who happened to be in the area visiting friends. An oft-told story said that Hughes sent a check to the Marine weekly for the remainder of his life as a sign of gratitude.
However, Durkin's daughter denied knowing that he received any money from his rescue of Hughes. Despite his physical injuries, Hughes was proud that his mind was still working. As he lay in his hospital bed, he decided that he did not like the bed's design. He called in plant engineers to design a customized bed, equipped with hot and cold running water, built in six sections, and operated by 30 electric motors, with push-button adjustments.
Although he never used the bed that he designed, Hughes' bed served as a prototype for the modern hospital bed. Hughes, however, believed that neither miracle nor modern medicine contributed to his recovery, instead asserting the natural life-giving properties of fresh-squeezed orange juice were responsible.
Many attribute his long-term dependence on opiates to his use of codeine as a painkiller during his convalescence. The War Production Board not the military originally contracted with Henry Kaiser and Hughes to produce the gigantic HK-1 Hercules flying boat for use during World War II to transport troops and equipment across the Atlantic as an alternative to seagoing troop transport ships that were vulnerable to German U-boats.
The project was opposed by the military services, thinking it would siphon resources from higher priority programs, but was advocated by Hughes' powerful allies in Washington, D. After disputes, Kaiser withdrew from the project and Hughes elected to continue it as the H-4 Hercules. However, the aircraft was not completed until after the end of World War II.
The Hercules is no longer the longest nor heaviest aircraft ever built; both of those titles are currently held by the Antonov An Mriya. The Hercules flew only once for one mile 1. The Hercules was nicknamed the Spruce Goose by its critics, but it was actually made largely from birch , not spruce , rather than of aluminum, because the contract required that Hughes build the aircraft of "non- strategic materials ".
It was built in Hughes' Westchester, California , facility. In hotly disputed testimony over TWA 's route awards and malfeasance in the defense acquisition process, Hughes turned the tables on his main interlocutor, Maine Senator Owen Brewster , and the hearings were widely interpreted as a Hughes victory. The Hughes Helicopters division started in when helicopter manufacturer Kellett sold their latest design to Hughes for production.
The company was a major American aerospace and defense contractor manufacturing numerous technology related products that include spacecraft vehicles, military aircraft, radar systems, electro-optical systems, the first working laser, aircraft computer systems, missile systems, ion-propulsion engines for space travel , commercial satellites, and other electronics systems.
In , Hughes created a new division of the company: In , Howard Hughes gave all his stock in the Hughes Aircraft Company to the newly formed Howard Hughes Medical Institute, thereby turning the aerospace and defense contractor into a tax-exempt charitable organization. It has particularly emphasized capabilities in high performance integrated circuits, high power lasers, antennas, networking, and smart materials.
Hughes used one personally, and the other 5 he let TWA operate. The Constellations were among the highest-performing commercial aircraft of the late s and s, and allowed TWA to pioneer nonstop transcontinental service. After the Boeing was announced, Hughes opted to pursue a more unique jet aircraft for TWA and approached Convair in late Convair proposed two concepts to Hughes, but Hughes was unable to decide which concept to adopt, and Convair eventually abandoned its initial jet project after the mockups of the and Douglas DC-8 were unveiled.
Hughes did not have enough cash on hand or future cash flow to pay for the orders, and did not immediately seek bank financing. Hughes's refusal to heed Dietrich's financing advice led to a major rift between the two by the end of Hughes believed that Dietrich wished to have Hughes committed as mentally incompetent, although the evidence of this is inconclusive.
Dietrich resigned by telephone in May after repeated requests for stock options, which Hughes refused to grant, and with no further progress on the jet financing. The claim was largely dependent upon obtaining testimony from Hughes himself. Hughes went into hiding and refused to testify. Hughes acquired control of Boston-based Northeast Airlines in However, the airline's lucrative route authority between major northeastern cities and Miami was terminated by a CAB decision around the time of the acquisition, and Hughes sold control of the company to a trustee in Northeast went on to merge with Delta Air Lines in Republic was subsequently acquired by and merged into Northwest Airlines which in turn was ultimately merged into Delta Air Lines in Hughes had made numerous business partnerships through industrialist and producer, David Charnay.
George, Utah that eventually led to Hughes buying up nearly every copy of the film he could, only to watch the film at home repeatedly for many nights in a row. Charnay later bought the Four Star , the film and television production company that produced The Conqueror.
Hughes, Charnay, as well as three others were indicted. The complexity of this LBO was the first of its kind. Attorney DeVoe Heaton, accused the group of conspiring to drive down the stock price of Air West in order to pressure company directors to sell to Hughes. Thompson, the federal judge that made the decision to dismiss the charges called the indictment one of the worst claims that he had ever seen.
The charges were filed again, a second time, by U. The Federal Judge ruled on November 13, and elaborated to say that the case suggested a "reprehensible misuse of the power of great wealth", but in his judicial opinion, "no crime had been committed. During a long pause between the years of the dismissed charges against Hughes, Charnay, and their partners, Howard Hughes had mysteriously died mid-flight while on the way to Houston from Acapulco.
No further attempts were made to file any indictments after Hughes had died. In , Hughes launched the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Miami, Florida currently located in Chevy Chase, Maryland with the expressed goal of basic biomedical research , including trying to understand, in Hughes' words, the "genesis of life itself," due to his lifelong interest in science and technology.
Hughes' first will , which he signed in at the age of 19, stipulated that a portion of his estate should be used to create a medical institute bearing his name. Hughes' internist, Verne Mason , who treated Hughes after his aircraft crash, was chairman of the institute's medical advisory committee. The foundation leased the land from Hughes Tool Co.
The deal was the topic of a protracted legal battle between Hughes and the Internal Revenue Service , which Hughes ultimately won. After his death in , many thought that the balance of Hughes' estate would go to the institute, although it was ultimately divided among his cousins and other heirs, given the lack of a will to the contrary.
In , during the cold war era , Hughes was approached by the CIA through his longtime partner, David Charnay, to help secretly recover the Soviet submarine K , which had sunk near Hawaii four years earlier. The recovery plan used the special-purpose salvage vessel Glomar Explorer. In the summer of , Glomar Explorer attempted to raise the Soviet vessel.
This section is believed to have held many of the most sought-after items, including its code book and nuclear missiles. Two nuclear-tipped torpedoes and some cryptographic machines were recovered, along with the bodies of six Soviet submariners who were subsequently given formal burial at sea in a filmed ceremony.
The operation, known as Project Azorian but incorrectly referred to by the press as Project Jennifer , became public in February after secret documents were released, obtained by burglars of Hughes' headquarters during a burglary in June The Glomar Explorer was eventually acquired by Transocean Inc. In , Hughes' wife, Ella, returned to Houston and filed for divorce.
Jean Harlow accompanied him to the premiere of Hell's Angels , but Noah Dietrich wrote many years later that the relationship was strictly professional, as Hughes apparently personally disliked Harlow. In his book, Howard: The Amazing Mr. Hughes , Dietrich said that Hughes genuinely liked and respected Jane Russell , but never sought romantic involvement with her.
According to Russell's autobiography, however, Hughes once tried to bed her after a party. Russell who was married at the time refused him, and Hughes promised it would never happen again. The two maintained a professional and private friendship for many years. Hughes remained good friends with Tierney who, after his failed attempts to seduce her, was quoted as saying "I don't think Howard could love anything that did not have a motor in it.
In , Hughes made a purchase of an unseen luxury steam yacht named the Rover , which was previously owned by British shipping magnate Lord Inchcape. My experience is that the English are the most honest race in the world. On July 11, , Hughes struck and killed a pedestrian named Gabriel S. Meyer with his car at the corner of 3rd Street and Lorraine in Los Angeles.
A witness to the crash told police that Hughes was driving erratically and too fast, and that Meyer had been standing in the safety zone of a streetcar stop. Hughes was booked on suspicion of negligent homicide and held overnight in jail until his attorney, Neil S. McCarthy , obtained a writ of habeas corpus for his release pending a coroner's inquest.
Nancy Bayly Watts , who was in the car with Hughes at the time of the crash, corroborated this version of the story. On July 16, , Hughes was held blameless by a coroner's jury at the inquest into Meyer's death. During his engagement at the Last Frontier hotel , entertainer Liberace mistook Hughes for his lighting director, instructing him to instantly bring up a blue light should he start to play " Clair de lune ".
Hughes nodded in compliance, before the hotel's entertainment director arrived and introduced Hughes to Liberace. Such reports were confirmed by actor Max Showalter , who became a close friend of Peters while shooting Niagara It has long been speculated  that Nixon's drive to learn what the Democrats were planning in was based in part on his belief that the Democrats knew about a later bribe that his friend Bebe Rebozo had received from Hughes after Nixon took office.
In late , Donald Nixon was collecting intelligence for his brother in preparation for the upcoming presidential election. One of his sources was John H. Meier, in collaboration with former Vice President Hubert Humphrey and others, wanted to feed misinformation to the Nixon campaign.
Meier told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election because Larry O'Brien had a great deal of information on Richard Nixon's illicit dealings with Howard Hughes that had never been released;   O'Brien did not actually have any such information, but Meier wanted Nixon to think he did. Donald told his brother that O'Brien was in possession of damaging Hughes information that could destroy his campaign.
Hughes was eccentric ,  and suffered from a severe obsessive-compulsive disorder OCD. Dietrich wrote that Hughes only ate the same thing for dinner, a New York strip steak cooked medium rare, dinner salad, and peas, but only the smaller ones, pushing the larger ones aside.
For breakfast, Hughes wanted his eggs cooked the way his family cook, Lily, made them. Hughes had a "phobia about germs", and "his passion for secrecy became a mania. While directing The Outlaw , Hughes became fixated on a small flaw in one of Jane Russell 's blouses, claiming that the fabric bunched up along a seam and gave the appearance of two nipples on each breast.
He wrote a detailed memorandum to the crew on how to fix the problem. Richard Fleischer , who directed His Kind of Woman with Hughes as executive producer, wrote at length in his autobiography about the difficulty of dealing with the tycoon.
The movie works. Retrieved March 13, Marilyn Chambers cinema xxx.
Howard Hughes changed Vegas:
- Hughes' considerable business holdings were overseen by a small panel unofficially dubbed "The Mormon Mafia" because of the many Latter-day Saints on the committee, led by Frank William Gay.
- Hughes was living in the Intercontinental Hotel near Lake Managua in Nicaragua, seeking privacy and security,  when a magnitude 6.
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Carl, Marion Eugene Carpenter, M. This article needs additional citations for verification. For breakfast, Hughes wanted his eggs cooked the way his family cook, Lily, made them.