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From to , he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikai 's counterrevolutionary government. About , of the , French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units. Von handgefertigtem Siebdruck bis hin zu digitalem, computergesteuertem Textildruck: In the conflict turned into a conventional war between two armies equipped with modern weapons supplied by the United States, China and the Soviet Union. Although a kind of taboo in France, "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs.

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The conflict gradually escalated into the Vietnam War Vietnam was absorbed into French Indochina in stages between and From to , he was imprisoned by Yuan Shikai 's counterrevolutionary government. In , he was captured by French agents in Shanghai and spirited to Vietnam. Keeping the French colonial administration, the Japanese ruled from behind the scenes in a parallel of Vichy France.

As far as Vietnamese nationalists were concerned, this was a double-puppet government. From October to May , during the Franco-Thai War , the Vichy French in Indochina defended their colony in a border conflict in which the forces of Thailand invaded while the Japanese sat on the sidelines.

Thai military successes were limited to the Cambodian border area, and in January Vichy France's modern naval forces soundly defeated the inferior Thai naval forces in the Battle of Ko Chang. The war ended in May, with the French agreeing to minor territorial revisions which restored formerly Thai areas to Thailand.

During the Vietnamese Famine of , Ho Chi Minh blamed ruthless Japanese exploitation and poor weather for up to two million Vietnamese deaths. The Japanese arrested and imprisoned most of the French officials and military officers remaining in the country. American President Franklin D. Roosevelt and General Joseph Stilwell privately made it clear that France was not to reacquire French Indochina after the war was over.

An armistice was signed between Japan and the United States on August 20, The Provisional Government of the French Republic wanted to restore its colonial rule in French Indochina as the final step of the Liberation of France. Swift Jr. We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

The latter proclaimed martial law on September The following night the Franco-British troops took control of Saigon. They had been sent by Chiang Kai-shek under General Lu Han to accept the surrender of Japanese forces occupying that area, then to supervise the disarming and repatriation of the Japanese Army. This effectively ended Ho Chi Minh's nominal government in Hanoi.

Leclerc's primary objectives were to restore public order in south Vietnam and to militarize Tonkin north Vietnam. Chiang Kai-shek threatened the French with war in response to manoeuvering by the French and Ho Chi Minh against each other, forcing them to come to a peace agreement. In February , he also forced the French to surrender and renounce all of their concessions and ports in China, such as Shanghai, in exchange for withdrawing from northern Indochina and allowing French troops to reoccupy the region starting in March In early , the French landed a military force at Haiphong , and negotiations took place about the future for Vietnam as a state within the French Union.

This is known as the Haiphong incident. Guerrilla warfare ensued, with the French controlling most of the country except far-flung areas. The French sent military expeditions to attack his bases, but Giap refused to meet them head-on in battle. They failed to capture Ho Chi Minh and his key lieutenants as intended.

Two years before, the French had refused Ho's proposal of a similar status, albeit with some restrictions on French power and the latter's eventual withdrawal from Vietnam. However, France still controlled all foreign relations and every defense issue. Within the framework of the French Union, France also granted independence to the other nations in Indochina, the Kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.

Later, as a concession to the new government and a way to increase their numbers, France agreed to the formation of the Vietnamese National Army commanded by Vietnamese officers.

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These troops were used mostly to garrison quiet sectors, so French forces would be available for combat. With the triumph of the communists in China's civil war, the Vietnamese communists gained a major political ally on their northern border, supporting them with weapons and supplies.

Giap re-organized his local irregular forces into five full conventional infantry divisions, the th, th, th, th and the th. The war began to intensify when Giap went on the offensive, attacking isolated French bases along the Chinese border. The United States began to give military aid to France in the form of weaponry and military observers.

The Cold War was turning 'hot' in East Asia, and the American government feared communist domination of the entire region would have deep implications for American interests. The US became strongly opposed to the government of Ho Chi Minh, in part, because it was supported and supplied by China.

By the time the remains of the garrisons reached the safety of the Red River Delta , 4, French troops had been killed, captured or missing in action and 2, wounded out of a total garrison force of over 10, Also lost were 13 artillery pieces, mortars, trucks, machine guns, 1, submachine guns and 8, rifles destroyed or captured during the fighting.

China and the Soviet Union recognized Ho Chi Minh as the legitimate ruler of Vietnam and sent him more and more supplies and material aid. The year also marked the first time that napalm was ever used in Vietnam this type of weapon was supplied by the U. This led to a period of success for the French. Caught for the first time in the open and actually forced to fight the French head-on, without the ability to quickly hide and retreat, they were mown down by concentrated French artillery and machine gun fire.

The th Division, composed of 11, men, with the partly rebuilt th and th Divisions in reserve, went forward and were beaten in bitter hand-to-hand fighting against French troops. The attacks fared no better and the three divisions lost heavily. However, any benefit this may have reaped for France was negated by the increasing domestic opposition to the war in France.

In January, General de Lattre fell ill from cancer and had to return to France for treatment. He died there shortly thereafter and was replaced by General Raoul Salan as the overall commander of French forces in Indochina. Each side lost nearly 5, men in this campaign, and it showed that the war was far from over. There were continued raids, skirmishes and guerrilla attacks, but through most of the rest of the year each side withdrew to prepare for larger operations.

He planned to wait until their supply lines were overextended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta. The road was cleared after a bayonet charge by the Indochinese March Battalion, and the withdrawal could continue. The French lost around 1, men during the whole operation, most of them during the Chan Muong ambush. The operation was partially successful, proving that the French could strike out at targets outside the De Lattre Line.

He reported to the French government " The operation was a tactical success for the French. By , despite official propaganda presenting the war as a " crusade against communism ", [64] [65] the war in Indochina was still growing unpopular with the French public.

The political stagnation of the Fourth Republic meant that France was unable to extract itself from the conflict. The artillery damaged both the main and secondary airfields that the French were using to fly in supplies. With defeat imminent, the French sought to hold on until the opening of the Geneva peace meeting on April The last French offensive took place on May 4, but it was ineffective.

The final fall took two days, May 6 and 7, during which the French fought on but were eventually overrun by a huge frontal assault. General Cogny, based in Hanoi, ordered General de Castries, who was commanding the outpost, to cease fire at 5: A formal order was given to not use the white flag so that the action would be considered a ceasefire instead of a surrender.

Much of the fighting ended on May 7; however, the ceasefire was not respected on Isabelle, the isolated southern position, where the battle lasted until May 8, 1: At least 2, members of the 20,strong French forces died, and another 1, were reported missing after the battle, and 11, were captured.

Of the 50, or so Vietnamese soldiers thought to be involved, there were an estimated 4, to 8, killed and another 9,—15, wounded. At the same time, Giap launched some offensives against the delta, but they all failed. In August Operation Passage to Freedom began, consisting of the evacuation of Catholic and loyalist Vietnamese civilians from communist North Vietnamese persecution.

The Geneva Conference on July 21, , recognized the 17th parallel north as a " provisional military demarcation line ", temporarily dividing the country into two zones, communist North Vietnam and pro-Western South Vietnam. Today it seems we can be reunited in a will for peace that may express the aspirations of our country Since already several years, a compromise peace, a peace negotiated with the opponent seemed to me commanded by the facts, while it commanded, in return, to put back in order our finances, the recovery of our economy and its expansion.

Because this war placed on our country an unbearable burden. And here appears today a new and formidable threat: It is because I wanted a better peace that I wanted it earlier, when we had more assets. But even now there is some renouncings or abandons that the situation does not comprise. France does not have to accept and will not accept settlement which would be incompatible with its more vital interests [applauding on certain seats of the Assembly on the left and at the extreme right].

France will remain present in Far-Orient. Neither our allies, nor our opponents must conserve the least doubt on the signification of our determination. A negotiation has been engaged in Geneva I have longly studied the report My conviction that a pacific settlement of the conflict is possible has been confirmed.

A "cease-fire" must henceforth intervene quickly. The government which I will form will fix itself — and will fix to its opponents — a delay of 4 weeks to reach it. We are today on 17th of June. I will present myself before you before the 20th of July If no satisfying solution has been reached at this date, you will be freed from the contract which would have tied us together, and my government will give its dismissal to the President of the Republic.

The Geneva Accords promised elections in to determine a national government for a united Vietnam. With American support, in Diem used a referendum to remove the former Emperor and declare himself the president of the Republic of Vietnam. North Vietnam also invaded and occupied portions of Laos to assist in supplying the National Liberation Front guerrillas fighting in South Vietnam.

Because of the political context, it could find stability only by an alliance between the three dominant parties: This had the effect of weakening the regime, with the two most significant movements of this period, Communism and Gaullism , in opposition. Unlikely alliances had to be made between left- and right-wing parties in order to form a government invested by the National Assembly, resulting in parliamentary instability , with fourteen prime ministers in succession between and 's Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

A strong anti-war movement came into existence in France driven mostly by the then-powerful French Communist Party outpowering the socialists and its young militant associations, major trade unions such as the General Confederation of Labour , and notable leftist intellectuals. Later, on April 28, , Joliot-Curie would be dismissed from the military and civilian Atomic Energy Commission for political reasons.

Young communist militants UJRF were also accused of sabotage actions like the famous Henri Martin affair and the case of Raymonde Dien , who was jailed one year for having blocked an ammunition train, with the help of other militants, in order to prevent the supply of French forces in Indochina in February Even ammunition sabotage by PCF agents has been reported, such as grenades exploding in the hands of legionaries.

At this session tension was so high between politicians that fighting ensued in the assembly following communist deputees' speeches against the Indochinese policy. On May 5 communist Ministers were dismissed from the government, marking the end of Tripartism. Emerging media played their role. The war ended in but its sequel started in French Algeria where the French Communist Party played an even stronger role by supplying the National Liberation Front FLN rebels with intelligence documents and financial aid.

They were called " the suitcase carriers " les porteurs de valises. In the French news, the Indochina War was presented as a direct continuation of the Korean War, where France had fought: In the latest days of the siege, non-paratrooper soldiers from all army corps from cavalry to infantry to artillery dropped for the first and last time of their life to support their comrades. A few hours after the French Union defeat at Dien Bien Phu in May , United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made an official speech depicting the "tragic event" and "its defense for fifty seven days and nights will remain in History as one of the most heroic of all time.

By , France headed the French Union. The Union gathered combatants from almost all French territories made of colonies, protectorates and associated states Madagascar , Senegal, Tunisia , etc. About , of the , French troops were Indochinese, almost all of whom were used in conventional units.

Senegalese and other African troops were sent to fight in Indochina. Some African alumni were trained in the Infantry Instruction Center no. Morocco was a French protectorate and sent troops to support the French effort in Indochina. As a French protectorate, Bizerte , Tunisia, was a major French base. Part of French Indochina, then part of the French Union and later an associated state, Laos fought the communists along with French forces.

The role played by Laotian troops in the conflict was depicted by veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer's famous th Platoon released in Such deserters were called the Nam Yum rats by Bigeard during the siege, as they hid close to the Nam Yum river during the day and searched at night for supply drops.

They were captured in enemy-controlled villages, and those who refused to join the State of Vietnam's army were considered prisoners or used as coolies to support a given regiment. These Japanese stayed behind in Indochina soon after World War II concluded in out of a peak number of 50, — the majority of which were repatriated to Japan by the then occupying British.

Some of the Japanese were ex- Kenpeitai who were wanted for questioning by Allied authorities. Giap arranged for them all to receive Vietnamese citizenship and false identification papers. A few, however, actively led Vietnamese forces into combat. One point that the French had a major problem with was the concept of "sanctuary".

So long as the anti-colonial revolutionaries who are fighting a guerrilla war have a sanctuary, in which they can hide out, rest and recuperate after losses and store supplies and necessary material, it is almost impossible and highly unlikely for any foreign enemy or foe to ever destroy and defeat them.

Evidence of the PRC's secret aid and supplies were found hidden in caves during the French military's Operation Hirondelle in July On May 6, , during the siege against French forces at the valley at Dien Bien Phu, Soviet-supplied Katyusha MRLS were successfully fielded against French Union military outposts, destroying enemy troop formations and bases and lowering their morale levels.

At the beginning of the war, the U. Then the U. By , however, the United States became concerned about the spread of communism in Asia, particularly following the end of the Chinese Civil War, and began to strongly support the French as the two countries were bound by the Cold War Mutual Defense Programme.

After the Moch— Marshall meeting of September 23, , in Washington, the United States started to support the French Union effort politically, logistically and financially. Officially, US involvement did not include use of armed force. In May , after the capture of Hainan island by Chinese communist forces, U. President Harry S. Truman began covertly authorizing direct financial assistance to the French, and on June 27, , after the outbreak of the Korean War, announced publicly that the U.

It was feared in Washington that if Ho were to win the war, with his ties to the Soviet Union, he would establish a puppet state with Moscow with the Soviets ultimately controlling Vietnamese affairs. The prospect of a communist-dominated Southeast Asia was enough to spur the U.

On June 30, , the first U. Later, in , U. President Dwight D. Eisenhower explained the escalation risk, introducing what he referred to as the "domino principle", which eventually became the concept of domino theory. The F4U-7s were actually purchased by the U.

They were supplemented by 25 ex-U. Twenty four Central Intelligence Agency Civil Air Transport pilots supplied the French Union garrison during the siege of Dien Bien Phu by airlifting paratroopers, ammunition, artillery pieces, tons of barbed wire, medics and other military materiel. McGovern, Jr. In August , in support to the French navy and the merchant navy, the U.

Up to 1 million Vietnamese civilians were transported from North to South during this period, [] with around one tenth of that number moving in the opposite direction. Although a kind of taboo in France, "the dirty war" has been featured in various films, books and songs. Since its declassification in the s, television documentaries have been released using new perspectives about the U.

The famous Communist propagandist Roman Karmen was in charge of the media exploitation of the battle of Dien Bien Phu. Hollywood made a film about Dien Bien Phu in , Jump into Hell , directed by David Butler and scripted by Irving Wallace , before his fame as a bestselling novelist. Hollywood also made several films about the war, Robert Florey 's Rogues' Regiment Samuel Fuller 's China Gate The French censor cut some violent scenes and made the director change the end of his movie which was seen as " too pessismistic".

Schoendoerffer has since become a media specialist about the Indochina War and has focused his production on realistic war movies. Graham Greene 's novel The Quiet American takes place during this war. A Vietnamese software developer made a first-person-shooter videogame called From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Indochina Wars. Indochina Wars. First Indochina War. Further information: This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: Play media. Geneva Conference and Partition of Vietnam.

French Union. Japanese holdout. Main article: Operation Passage to Freedom. La Guerre d'Indochine — How Pol Pot Came to Power. Verso, Retrieved August 19, Archived from the original on December 2, Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania. Political Victory: Embers of War: Random House. Osprey Publishing. Karnow, Vietnam: Das ist der neue Cast. Bereits vor der Erstausstrahlung des Thrillers You - Du wirst mich lieben wurde beschlossen, dass es eine zweite Staffel geben soll.

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Axis and Axis-aligned leaders. Hanoi, Adieu: Japanese volunteers. He planned to wait until their supply lines were overextended and then cut them off from the Red River Delta. Quid Encyclopedia.

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