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Words appear around the age of 12 to 18 months; the average vocabulary of an eighteen-month-old child is around 50 words. Now I focus on that and that's gonna be in April and May. However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. If you love someone you are happy to see them and look forward to spending time together. Because the basic relation of meaning for most linguistic signs is based on social convention, linguistic signs can be considered arbitrary, in the sense that the convention is established socially and historically, rather than by means of a natural relation between a specific sign form and its meaning. Each of them would analyze a sentence such as this in a different manner.

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The indicator to watch, he told MarketWatch recently , is the percentage of all Treasury pairs that display inversions. The first step is to know your enemy. The U. The answer is shown in the graph below. Severe crashes like these occur on average every 18 years. That degree of loss has occurred on average once per decade.

These two severe crashes happened twice in the past 20 years that is, roughly 10 years apart. Without knowing whether a bear market has already begun or the bull market will continue to run a while longer, the best thing investors can do is hedge their bets. To be sure, the smaller losses of a balanced fund are no picnic.

Investors who are more adventurous can try Lazy Portfolios , which MarketWatch has tracked for more than 16 years, or the newer Muscular Portfolios. Brian Livingston is the author of " Muscular Portfolios ," which shows how to achieve greater returns with smaller losses than Lazy Portfolios, and editor of the free Muscular Portfolios Newsletter.

Economic Calendar Tax Withholding Calculator. Incomes are rising, especially among the better off, at the same time as birth rates are falling. In China the former one-child policy means that six people—two parents and four grandparents—can pour money into educating a single child. The growth of the knowledge economy means that the returns to education are rising at the same time as the opportunities available to those without any schooling are shrinking.

All over the developing world, people want more or better education than governments provide. Where cities are growing at unmanageable speed, the private sector is taking up the slack. In India the private sector now educates nearly half of all children, in Pakistan more than a third, and in both countries the state sector is shrinking.

Even where the state does pretty well, as in East Asia, richer people still want better schooling for their children than the masses get. In most ways, this is an excellent thing, because the world is getting more, and better, schooling. In rich countries, once the background and ability of the children who attend private schools are taken into account, their exam results are about the same as those in the state sector.

But in developing countries private schools are better—and much more efficient. A study of eight Indian states found that, in terms of learning outcomes per rupee, private schools were between 1. But private schools also increase inequality. They tend to sort children by income, herding richer ones towards better schools that will enhance their already superior life chances and poorer ones towards shoddy establishments that will further undermine their prospects.

That is one reason why many governments are troubled by their rise.

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Other reasons are less creditable: So for good and bad reasons, governments are squeezing private schools, banning profits, cutting or capping fees, and using regulations to close them or make their life difficult.

Whether governments formally allow it or not, people will find ways of buying private education, by tutoring children out of school or bidding up the price of property near good state schools. Freedom from union power and independent management are at the root of its superior performance and greater efficiency. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects.

This is because human language is modality -independent. Depending on philosophical perspectives regarding the definition of language and meaning, when used as a general concept, "language" may refer to the cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication, or to describe the set of rules that makes up these systems, or the set of utterances that can be produced from those rules.

All languages rely on the process of semiosis to relate signs to particular meanings. Oral , manual and tactile languages contain a phonological system that governs how symbols are used to form sequences known as words or morphemes , and a syntactic system that governs how words and morphemes are combined to form phrases and utterances.

Human language has the properties of productivity and displacement , and relies entirely on social convention and learning. Its complex structure affords a much wider range of expressions than any known system of animal communication. Language is thought to have originated when early hominins started gradually changing their primate communication systems, acquiring the ability to form a theory of other minds and a shared intentionality.

Language is processed in many different locations in the human brain , but especially in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Humans acquire language through social interaction in early childhood, and children generally speak fluently by approximately three years old. The use of language is deeply entrenched in human culture. Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity , social stratification , as well as social grooming and entertainment.

Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur. A group of languages that descend from a common ancestor is known as a language family. The Indo-European family is the most widely spoken and includes languages as diverse as English , Russian and Hindi ; the Sino-Tibetan family includes Mandarin , Bodo and the other Chinese languages , and Tibetan ; the Afro-Asiatic family includes Arabic , Somali , and Hebrew ; the Bantu languages include Swahili , and Zulu , and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout Africa ; and the Malayo-Polynesian languages include Indonesian , Malay , Tagalog , and hundreds of other languages spoken throughout the Pacific.

Unlike conventional human languages, a formal language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information. This article specifically concerns the properties of natural human language as it is studied in the discipline of linguistics. As an object of linguistic study, "language" has two primary meanings: The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure , who defined the modern discipline of linguistics, first explicitly formulated the distinction using the French word langage for language as a concept, langue as a specific instance of a language system, and parole for the concrete usage of speech in a particular language.

When speaking of language as a general concept, definitions can be used which stress different aspects of the phenomenon. Greek philosophers such as Gorgias and Plato debated the relation between words, concepts and reality. Gorgias argued that language could represent neither the objective experience nor human experience, and that communication and truth were therefore impossible.

Plato maintained that communication is possible because language represents ideas and concepts that exist independently of, and prior to, language. During the Enlightenment and its debates about human origins, it became fashionable to speculate about the origin of language. Thinkers such as Rousseau and Herder argued that language had originated in the instinctive expression of emotions, and that it was originally closer to music and poetry than to the logical expression of rational thought.

Rationalist philosophers such as Kant and Descartes held the opposite view. This led to the question of whether philosophical problems are really firstly linguistic problems. The resurgence of the view that language plays a significant role in the creation and circulation of concepts, and that the study of philosophy is essentially the study of language, is associated with what has been called the linguistic turn and philosophers such as Wittgenstein in 20th-century philosophy.

These debates about language in relation to meaning and reference, cognition and consciousness remain active today. One definition sees language primarily as the mental faculty that allows humans to undertake linguistic behaviour: This definition stresses the universality of language to all humans, and it emphasizes the biological basis for the human capacity for language as a unique development of the human brain.

Proponents of the view that the drive to language acquisition is innate in humans argue that this is supported by the fact that all cognitively normal children raised in an environment where language is accessible will acquire language without formal instruction. Languages may even develop spontaneously in environments where people live or grow up together without a common language; for example, creole languages and spontaneously developed sign languages such as Nicaraguan Sign Language.

This view, which can be traced back to the philosophers Kant and Descartes, understands language to be largely innate , for example, in Chomsky's theory of Universal Grammar , or American philosopher Jerry Fodor 's extreme innatist theory. These kinds of definitions are often applied in studies of language within a cognitive science framework and in neurolinguistics. Another definition sees language as a formal system of signs governed by grammatical rules of combination to communicate meaning.

This definition stresses that human languages can be described as closed structural systems consisting of rules that relate particular signs to particular meanings. Some proponents of Saussure's view of language have advocated a formal approach which studies language structure by identifying its basic elements and then by presenting a formal account of the rules according to which the elements combine in order to form words and sentences.

The main proponent of such a theory is Noam Chomsky , the originator of the generative theory of grammar , who has defined language as the construction of sentences that can be generated using transformational grammars. Yet another definition sees language as a system of communication that enables humans to exchange verbal or symbolic utterances. This definition stresses the social functions of language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment.

Functional theories of grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions, and understand the grammatical structures of language to be the result of an adaptive process by which grammar was "tailored" to serve the communicative needs of its users.

This view of language is associated with the study of language in pragmatic , cognitive , and interactive frameworks, as well as in sociolinguistics and linguistic anthropology. Functionalist theories tend to study grammar as dynamic phenomena, as structures that are always in the process of changing as they are employed by their speakers. This view places importance on the study of linguistic typology , or the classification of languages according to structural features, as it can be shown that processes of grammaticalization tend to follow trajectories that are partly dependent on typology.

A number of features, many of which were described by Charles Hockett and called design features [21] set human language apart from other known systems of communication, such as those used by non-human animals. Communication systems used by other animals such as bees or apes are closed systems that consist of a finite, usually very limited, number of possible ideas that can be expressed.

This is possible because human language is based on a dual code, in which a finite number of elements which are meaningless in themselves e. Several species of animals have proved to be able to acquire forms of communication through social learning: Similarly, many species of birds and whales learn their songs by imitating other members of their species.

However, while some animals may acquire large numbers of words and symbols, [note 1] none have been able to learn as many different signs as are generally known by an average 4 year old human, nor have any acquired anything resembling the complex grammar of human language. Human languages also differ from animal communication systems in that they employ grammatical and semantic categories , such as noun and verb, present and past, which may be used to express exceedingly complex meanings.

This means that it can be used not only for communication through one channel or medium, but through several. For example, spoken language uses the auditive modality, whereas sign languages and writing use the visual modality, and braille writing uses the tactile modality. Human language is also unique in being able to refer to abstract concepts and to imagined or hypothetical events as well as events that took place in the past or may happen in the future.

This ability to refer to events that are not at the same time or place as the speech event is called displacement , and while some animal communication systems can use displacement such as the communication of bees that can communicate the location of sources of nectar that are out of sight , the degree to which it is used in human language is also considered unique.

Theories about the origin of language differ in regard to their basic assumptions about what language is. Some theories are based on the idea that language is so complex that one cannot imagine it simply appearing from nothing in its final form, but that it must have evolved from earlier pre-linguistic systems among our pre-human ancestors.

These theories can be called continuity-based theories. The opposite viewpoint is that language is such a unique human trait that it cannot be compared to anything found among non-humans and that it must therefore have appeared suddenly in the transition from pre-hominids to early man.

These theories can be defined as discontinuity-based. Similarly, theories based on the generative view of language pioneered by Noam Chomsky see language mostly as an innate faculty that is largely genetically encoded, whereas functionalist theories see it as a system that is largely cultural, learned through social interaction. Chomsky is one prominent proponent of a discontinuity-based theory of human language origins.

Continuity-based theories are held by a majority of scholars, but they vary in how they envision this development. Those who see language as being mostly innate, for example psychologist Steven Pinker , hold the precedents to be animal cognition , [10] whereas those who see language as a socially learned tool of communication, such as psychologist Michael Tomasello , see it as having developed from animal communication in primates: A prominent proponent of this view is archaeologist Steven Mithen.

Researchers on the evolutionary origin of language generally find it plausible to suggest that language was invented only once, and that all modern spoken languages are thus in some way related, even if that relation can no longer be recovered Because language emerged in the early prehistory of man, before the existence of any written records, its early development has left no historical traces, and it is believed that no comparable processes can be observed today.

Theories that stress continuity often look at animals to see if, for example, primates display any traits that can be seen as analogous to what pre-human language must have been like. And early human fossils can be inspected for traces of physical adaptation to language use or pre-linguistic forms of symbolic behaviour.

Among the signs in human fossils that may suggest linguistic abilities are: It was mostly undisputed that pre-human australopithecines did not have communication systems significantly different from those found in great apes in general. However, a study on Ardipithecus ramidus challenges this belief. Some scholars assume the development of primitive language-like systems proto-language as early as Homo habilis 2.

The study of language, linguistics , has been developing into a science since the first grammatical descriptions of particular languages in India more than years ago, after the development of the Brahmi script. Modern linguistics is a science that concerns itself with all aspects of language, examining it from all of the theoretical viewpoints described above.

The academic study of language is conducted within many different disciplinary areas and from different theoretical angles, all of which inform modern approaches to linguistics. For example, descriptive linguistics examines the grammar of single languages, theoretical linguistics develops theories on how best to conceptualize and define the nature of language based on data from the various extant human languages, sociolinguistics studies how languages are used for social purposes informing in turn the study of the social functions of language and grammatical description, neurolinguistics studies how language is processed in the human brain and allows the experimental testing of theories, computational linguistics builds on theoretical and descriptive linguistics to construct computational models of language often aimed at processing natural language or at testing linguistic hypotheses, and historical linguistics relies on grammatical and lexical descriptions of languages to trace their individual histories and reconstruct trees of language families by using the comparative method.

However, Sumerian scribes already studied the differences between Sumerian and Akkadian grammar around BC. Subsequent grammatical traditions developed in all of the ancient cultures that adopted writing. In the 17th century AD, the French Port-Royal Grammarians developed the idea that the grammars of all languages were a reflection of the universal basics of thought, and therefore that grammar was universal.

In the 18th century, the first use of the comparative method by British philologist and expert on ancient India William Jones sparked the rise of comparative linguistics. Early in the 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure introduced the idea of language as a static system of interconnected units, defined through the oppositions between them.

By introducing a distinction between diachronic and synchronic analyses of language, he laid the foundation of the modern discipline of linguistics. Saussure also introduced several basic dimensions of linguistic analysis that are still fundamental in many contemporary linguistic theories, such as the distinctions between syntagm and paradigm , and the Langue-parole distinction , distinguishing language as an abstract system langue , from language as a concrete manifestation of this system parole.

In the s, Noam Chomsky formulated the generative theory of language. According to this theory, the most basic form of language is a set of syntactic rules that is universal for all humans and which underlies the grammars of all human languages. This set of rules is called Universal Grammar ; for Chomsky, describing it is the primary objective of the discipline of linguistics.

Thus, he considered that the grammars of individual languages are only of importance to linguistics insofar as they allow us to deduce the universal underlying rules from which the observable linguistic variability is generated. In opposition to the formal theories of the generative school, functional theories of language propose that since language is fundamentally a tool, its structures are best analyzed and understood by reference to their functions.

Formal theories of grammar seek to define the different elements of language and describe the way they relate to each other as systems of formal rules or operations, while functional theories seek to define the functions performed by language and then relate them to the linguistic elements that carry them out. Cognitive linguistics is primarily concerned with how the mind creates meaning through language.

Speaking is the default modality for language in all cultures. The production of spoken language depends on sophisticated capacities for controlling the lips, tongue and other components of the vocal apparatus, the ability to acoustically decode speech sounds, and the neurological apparatus required for acquiring and producing language.

The brain is the coordinating center of all linguistic activity; it controls both the production of linguistic cognition and of meaning and the mechanics of speech production. Nonetheless, our knowledge of the neurological bases for language is quite limited, though it has advanced considerably with the use of modern imaging techniques.

The discipline of linguistics dedicated to studying the neurological aspects of language is called neurolinguistics. Early work in neurolinguistics involved the study of language in people with brain lesions, to see how lesions in specific areas affect language and speech.

In this way, neuroscientists in the 19th century discovered that two areas in the brain are crucially implicated in language processing. The first area is Wernicke's area , which is in the posterior section of the superior temporal gyrus in the dominant cerebral hemisphere. People with a lesion in this area of the brain develop receptive aphasia , a condition in which there is a major impairment of language comprehension, while speech retains a natural-sounding rhythm and a relatively normal sentence structure.

The second area is Broca's area , in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. People with a lesion to this area develop expressive aphasia , meaning that they know what they want to say, they just cannot get it out. Other symptoms that may be present in expressive aphasia include problems with fluency, articulation, word-finding, word repetition , and producing and comprehending complex grammatical sentences, both orally and in writing.

Those with this aphasia also exhibit ungrammatical speech and show inability to use syntactic information to determine the meaning of sentences. Both expressive and receptive aphasia also affect the use of sign language, in analogous ways to how they affect speech, with expressive aphasia causing signers to sign slowly and with incorrect grammar, whereas a signer with receptive aphasia will sign fluently, but make little sense to others and have difficulties comprehending others' signs.

This shows that the impairment is specific to the ability to use language, not to the physiology used for speech production. With technological advances in the late 20th century, neurolinguists have also incorporated non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and electrophysiology to study language processing in individuals without impairments.

Spoken language relies on human physical ability to produce sound , which is a longitudinal wave propagated through the air at a frequency capable of vibrating the ear drum. This ability depends on the physiology of the human speech organs. By controlling the different parts of the speech apparatus, the airstream can be manipulated to produce different speech sounds.

The sound of speech can be analyzed into a combination of segmental and suprasegmental elements. The segmental elements are those that follow each other in sequences, which are usually represented by distinct letters in alphabetic scripts, such as the Roman script. In free flowing speech, there are no clear boundaries between one segment and the next, nor usually are there any audible pauses between words.

Segments therefore are distinguished by their distinct sounds which are a result of their different articulations, and they can be either vowels or consonants. Suprasegmental phenomena encompass such elements as stress , phonation type, voice timbre , and prosody or intonation , all of which may have effects across multiple segments.

Consonants and vowel segments combine to form syllables , which in turn combine to form utterances; these can be distinguished phonetically as the space between two inhalations. Acoustically , these different segments are characterized by different formant structures, that are visible in a spectrogram of the recorded sound wave See illustration of Spectrogram of the formant structures of three English vowels.

Formants are the amplitude peaks in the frequency spectrum of a specific sound. Vowels are those sounds that have no audible friction caused by the narrowing or obstruction of some part of the upper vocal tract. They vary in quality according to the degree of lip aperture and the placement of the tongue within the oral cavity.

If the tongue is located towards the back of the mouth, the quality changes, creating vowels such as [u] English "oo". Consonants are those sounds that have audible friction or closure at some point within the upper vocal tract. Consonant sounds vary by place of articulation, i.

Each place of articulation produces a different set of consonant sounds, which are further distinguished by manner of articulation , or the kind of friction, whether full closure, in which case the consonant is called occlusive or stop , or different degrees of aperture creating fricatives and approximants. Consonants can also be either voiced or unvoiced , depending on whether the vocal cords are set in vibration by airflow during the production of the sound.

Voicing is what separates English [s] in bus unvoiced sibilant from [z] in buzz voiced sibilant. Some speech sounds, both vowels and consonants, involve release of air flow through the nasal cavity, and these are called nasals or nasalized sounds. Other sounds are defined by the way the tongue moves within the mouth: By using these speech organs, humans can produce hundreds of distinct sounds: When described as a system of symbolic communication , language is traditionally seen as consisting of three parts: The study of the process of semiosis , how signs and meanings are combined, used, and interpreted is called semiotics.

Signs can be composed of sounds, gestures, letters, or symbols, depending on whether the language is spoken, signed, or written, and they can be combined into complex signs, such as words and phrases. When used in communication, a sign is encoded and transmitted by a sender through a channel to a receiver who decodes it.

Some of the properties that define human language as opposed to other communication systems are: The rules by which signs can be combined to form words and phrases are called syntax or grammar. The meaning that is connected to individual signs, morphemes, words, phrases, and texts is called semantics.

Languages express meaning by relating a sign form to a meaning, or its content. Sign forms must be something that can be perceived, for example, in sounds, images, or gestures, and then related to a specific meaning by social convention. Because the basic relation of meaning for most linguistic signs is based on social convention, linguistic signs can be considered arbitrary, in the sense that the convention is established socially and historically, rather than by means of a natural relation between a specific sign form and its meaning.

Thus, languages must have a vocabulary of signs related to specific meaning. The English sign "dog" denotes, for example, a member of the species Canis familiaris. In a language, the array of arbitrary signs connected to specific meanings is called the lexicon , and a single sign connected to a meaning is called a lexeme.

Not all meanings in a language are represented by single words. Often, semantic concepts are embedded in the morphology or syntax of the language in the form of grammatical categories. All languages contain the semantic structure of predication: Traditionally, semantics has been understood to be the study of how speakers and interpreters assign truth values to statements, so that meaning is understood to be the process by which a predicate can be said to be true or false about an entity, e.

Recently, this model of semantics has been complemented with more dynamic models of meaning that incorporate shared knowledge about the context in which a sign is interpreted into the production of meaning. Such models of meaning are explored in the field of pragmatics. Depending on modality, language structure can be based on systems of sounds speech , gestures sign languages , or graphic or tactile symbols writing.

The ways in which languages use sounds or signs to construct meaning are studied in phonology. In any given language, only a limited number of the many distinct sounds that can be created by the human vocal apparatus contribute to constructing meaning. Sounds as part of a linguistic system are called phonemes. However, each language contrasts sounds in different ways.

For example, in a language that does not distinguish between voiced and unvoiced consonants, the sounds [p] and [b] if they both occur could be considered a single phoneme, and consequently, the two pronunciations would have the same meaning. Similarly, the English language does not distinguish phonemically between aspirated and non-aspirated pronunciations of consonants, as many other languages like Korean and Hindi do: All spoken languages have phonemes of at least two different categories, vowels and consonants , that can be combined to form syllables.

Many languages, for example, use stress , pitch , duration , and tone to distinguish meaning. Because these phenomena operate outside of the level of single segments, they are called suprasegmental. Writing systems represent language using visual symbols, which may or may not correspond to the sounds of spoken language. The Latin alphabet and those on which it is based or that have been derived from it was originally based on the representation of single sounds, so that words were constructed from letters that generally denote a single consonant or vowel in the structure of the word.

In syllabic scripts, such as the Inuktitut syllabary, each sign represents a whole syllable. In logographic scripts, each sign represents an entire word, [71] and will generally bear no relation to the sound of that word in spoken language. Because all languages have a very large number of words, no purely logographic scripts are known to exist.

Written language represents the way spoken sounds and words follow one after another by arranging symbols according to a pattern that follows a certain direction. The direction used in a writing system is entirely arbitrary and established by convention. Some writing systems use the horizontal axis left to right as the Latin script or right to left as the Arabic script , while others such as traditional Chinese writing use the vertical dimension from top to bottom.

A few writing systems use opposite directions for alternating lines, and others, such as the ancient Maya script, can be written in either direction and rely on graphic cues to show the reader the direction of reading. In order to represent the sounds of the world's languages in writing, linguists have developed the International Phonetic Alphabet , designed to represent all of the discrete sounds that are known to contribute to meaning in human languages.

Grammar is the study of how meaningful elements called morphemes within a language can be combined into utterances. Morphemes can either be free or bound. If they are free to be moved around within an utterance, they are usually called words , and if they are bound to other words or morphemes, they are called affixes.

The way in which meaningful elements can be combined within a language is governed by rules. The rules for the internal structure of words are called morphology. The rules of the internal structure of phrases and sentences are called syntax. Grammar can be described as a system of categories and a set of rules that determine how categories combine to form different aspects of meaning.

However, several categories are so common as to be nearly universal. Such universal categories include the encoding of the grammatical relations of participants and predicates by grammatically distinguishing between their relations to a predicate, the encoding of temporal and spatial relations on predicates, and a system of grammatical person governing reference to and distinction between speakers and addressees and those about whom they are speaking.

Languages organize their parts of speech into classes according to their functions and positions relative to other parts. All languages, for instance, make a basic distinction between a group of words that prototypically denotes things and concepts and a group of words that prototypically denotes actions and events.

The first group, which includes English words such as "dog" and "song", are usually called nouns. The second, which includes "run" and "sing", are called verbs. Another common category is the adjective: Word classes can be "open" if new words can continuously be added to the class, or relatively "closed" if there is a fixed number of words in a class.

In English, the class of pronouns is closed, whereas the class of adjectives is open, since an infinite number of adjectives can be constructed from verbs e. In other languages such as Korean , the situation is the opposite, and new pronouns can be constructed, whereas the number of adjectives is fixed. Word classes also carry out differing functions in grammar. Prototypically, verbs are used to construct predicates , while nouns are used as arguments of predicates.

In a sentence such as "Sally runs", the predicate is "runs", because it is the word that predicates a specific state about its argument "Sally". Some verbs such as "curse" can take two arguments, e. A predicate that can only take a single argument is called intransitive , while a predicate that can take two arguments is called transitive.

Many other word classes exist in different languages, such as conjunctions like "and" that serve to join two sentences, articles that introduce a noun, interjections such as "wow! Some languages have positionals that describe the spatial position of an event or entity. Many languages have classifiers that identify countable nouns as belonging to a particular type or having a particular shape.

In linguistics, the study of the internal structure of complex words and the processes by which words are formed is called morphology. In most languages, it is possible to construct complex words that are built of several morphemes. For instance, the English word "unexpected" can be analyzed as being composed of the three morphemes "un-", "expect" and "-ed".

Morphemes can be classified according to whether they are independent morphemes, so-called roots , or whether they can only co-occur attached to other morphemes. These bound morphemes or affixes can be classified according to their position in relation to the root: Affixes serve to modify or elaborate the meaning of the root.

Some languages change the meaning of words by changing the phonological structure of a word, for example, the English word "run", which in the past tense is "ran". This process is called ablaut. Furthermore, morphology distinguishes between the process of inflection , which modifies or elaborates on a word, and the process of derivation , which creates a new word from an existing one.

In English, the verb "sing" has the inflectional forms "singing" and "sung", which are both verbs, and the derivational form "singer", which is a noun derived from the verb with the agentive suffix "-er". Languages differ widely in how much they rely on morphological processes of word formation. In some languages, for example, Chinese, there are no morphological processes, and all grammatical information is encoded syntactically by forming strings of single words.

This type of morpho-syntax is often called isolating , or analytic, because there is almost a full correspondence between a single word and a single aspect of meaning. Most languages have words consisting of several morphemes, but they vary in the degree to which morphemes are discrete units.

In many languages, notably in most Indo-European languages, single morphemes may have several distinct meanings that cannot be analyzed into smaller segments. For example, in Latin, the word bonus , or "good", consists of the root bon- , meaning "good", and the suffix - us , which indicates masculine gender, singular number, and nominative case.

These languages are called fusional languages , because several meanings may be fused into a single morpheme. The opposite of fusional languages are agglutinative languages which construct words by stringing morphemes together in chains, but with each morpheme as a discrete semantic unit. An example of such a language is Turkish , where for example, the word evlerinizden , or "from your houses", consists of the morphemes, ev-ler-iniz-den with the meanings house-plural-your-from.

The languages that rely on morphology to the greatest extent are traditionally called polysynthetic languages. They may express the equivalent of an entire English sentence in a single word. For example, in Persian the single word nafahmidamesh means I didn't understand it consisting of morphemes na-fahm-id-am-esh with the meanings, "negation.

As another example with more complexity, in the Yupik word tuntussuqatarniksatengqiggtuq , which means "He had not yet said again that he was going to hunt reindeer", the word consists of the morphemes tuntu-ssur-qatar-ni-ksaite-ngqiggte-uq with the meanings, "reindeer-hunt-future-say-negation-again-third.

Many languages use morphology to cross-reference words within a sentence. This is sometimes called agreement. For example, in many Indo-European languages, adjectives must cross-reference the noun they modify in terms of number, case, and gender, so that the Latin adjective bonus , or "good", is inflected to agree with a noun that is masculine gender, singular number, and nominative case.

In many polysynthetic languages, verbs cross-reference their subjects and objects. In these types of languages, a single verb may include information that would require an entire sentence in English. For example, in the Basque phrase ikusi nauzu , or "you saw me", the past tense auxiliary verb n-au-zu similar to English "do" agrees with both the subject you expressed by the n - prefix, and with the object me expressed by the — zu suffix.

The sentence could be directly transliterated as "see you-did-me" [83]. Another way in which languages convey meaning is through the order of words within a sentence. The grammatical rules for how to produce new sentences from words that are already known is called syntax. Conversely, in Latin , both Dominus servos vituperabat and Servos vituperabat dominus mean "the master was reprimanding the slaves", because servos , or "slaves", is in the accusative case , showing that they are the grammatical object of the sentence, and dominus , or "master", is in the nominative case , showing that he is the subject.

Latin uses morphology to express the distinction between subject and object, whereas English uses word order. Another example of how syntactic rules contribute to meaning is the rule of inverse word order in questions , which exists in many languages. This rule explains why when in English, the phrase "John is talking to Lucy" is turned into a question, it becomes "Who is John talking to?

The latter example may be used as a way of placing special emphasis on "who", thereby slightly altering the meaning of the question.

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The impression was this: The foundation started in and we wanted to help music education in America, but we also want to nurture the best talent, new talent, having people coming from the U. This page was last edited on 1 April , at Blackwell Publishers. Campbell, Lyle

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18.01.2019 in 16:48 Dendrites

As much as I love Alexis, I was leaning toward Annika due to overal sexiness. But then I watched them both ride. Annika rides from the knees, whereas Alexis rides from the hips. If you've got the gorgiuos ass like these two then you have to work the hips. Tight race but Alexis gets my final stroke... or vote.

20.01.2019 in 09:57 Galvanist

I want to be fucked like this!

15.01.2019 in 21:03 Skilful

That's my 4th grade teacher cum on

14.01.2019 in 01:44 Worder

Or even the opposite?

13.01.2019 in 18:13 Crust

alanah rae

17.01.2019 in 06:16 Bechara

A video with my new yoga pants will come very soon

14.01.2019 in 09:18 Bramble

I hope to be a hot step mom